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On Wednesday, June 26, 2013, conferences on Eureka will be hold, at the Positively Poe Conference.

Please access http://www.poemuseum.org/blog/final-schedule-for-positively-poe-conference,  for additional information on the event.

Hal Poe will be at Session Four – Poetry, Science, and Eureka,  on the Panel Chair, and René van Slooten will present “The Facts in the Case of Eureka”.

We hope all Eureka enthusiasts can be there!

 Positively Poe

Harrison Institute / Small Special Collections Library

University of Virginia

Charlottesville, Virginia

July 24 – 26, 2013

 

 Sponsored by

The Poe Museum

Richmond, Virginia

 

Organized by

Alexandra Urakova

Gorky Institute, Moscow

Harry Lee Poe

Poe Museum, Richmond

   

 

About the Conference Continue Reading »

Over the last few years we have seen several notable additions to the number of film and television adaptations of Poe and his works. They are notable for having large enough budgets to have no excuse for doing such a bad job of treating Poe. In this dreary cultural context, the idea for this conference grew. We wondered what would happen if scholars were invited to reflect on the positive aspects of Poe and his work.

Poe’s reputation as a tortured, tragic figure, melancholic poet and the “master of the macabre” has fueled his popularity for over a century and a half, while debunking stereotypes and myths associated with that reputation has always been an essential part of Poe criticism. Going beyond the debunking of the popular caricature, we would like to discover the “positive” side of Poe’s life and work. Just as his life had its ups and downs, his writing, too, reflects a wide range of experience, not exclusively the dark and dismal.

We have been gratified by the response to this little boutique gathering set at Poe’s university at the edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains he so loved. In planning this conference, we considered the setting to be of major importance, and we hope the conferees can find the time to enjoy Mr. Jefferson’s university and the mountains around it.

Edgar Allan Poe and cryptography

Are there hidden messages in ‘Eureka’?

 

By René van Slooten

(The Netherlands; April 2013)

Introduction

Edgar Allan Poe had a fascination for cryptography. And he was certainly not the only one, because in his time cryptography played an important role in society. There was no internet or telephone, and plain letters could be dangerous and incriminating if they were found and read by others (‘The Purloined Letter’!), so many people used cryptography or ‘secret writing’ to convey messages to others. They also used  announcements in newspapers, for a cipher in the newspaper advertisements is an ideal way of communication between secret lovers who want to make an appointment, or between businessmen or politicians who want to make secret deals: the message, the sender and the receiver(s) remain unknown, except to themselves. Continue Reading »

Cryptography in Poe’s work

Secrets and mysteries always appealed to Poe, and his interest in cryptography was probably further enhanced during his years in the US army, where cryptography and ciphers are part of military routine. So it is no surprise that he used that knowledge and inclination when he became a writer and a magazine editor. His most famous accomplishment is the story ‘The Gold Bug’ (1843), in which the plot revolves around a cipher that contains information about a buried treasure. Even modern universities still use this story as instruction material for their classes on cryptography.

As a magazine editor, Poe also used cryptography. He asked his readers to submit ciphers which he would then publish as challenge to other readers and to himself. The solution would be given in the next issue of the magazine, and Poe claimed to have solved most of the submitted ciphers. One that he could not solve was finally solved in 2000 (!) by the Canadian software expert Gil Broza (see www.maa.org/mathland/mathtrek_11_13_00 ).

In 1841 Poe published several articles on cryptography, under the title ‘A Few Words on Secret Writing’. Poe’s favorite system of cryptography was the use of a ‘key-phrase’. This is a sentence of 26 letters, which match  the letters of the normal alphabet. Poe gave the Latin sentence ‘Suaviter in modo, fortiter in re’ (‘Gentle in manner, firm in deed’) as an example, which gives the following scheme for substitution:

a  b  c  d e  f  g  h  i  j    k   l  m  n o  p q  r  s  t u  v w x  y  z

s  u  a  v  i   t  e  r  i  n  m  o  d  o  f  o  r  t  i   t e  r  i  n  r  e

In this scheme, ‘Edgar Allan Poe‘ becomes ‘ivest sooso ofi’.

A key-phrase may also contain 25 or 24 letters or even less, depending on the agreement between sender and receiver about the alphabet that they use. For instance, the v and the u can be made interchangeable, and the w can be replaced with vv or uu. In his articles on secret writing, Poe also gives an example of such a key-phrase of only 24 letters ‘Le gouvernement provisoire’. However, his is a poor example, because this sentence contains only 13 different letters that have to represent the full alphabet, while also the multiple ones (e, o, I, n, r and v) will give extra trouble, unless he sender and receiver have an agreement on how to solve such practical problems.

Poe’s articles were about cryptography in its most recognizable form, namely an incomprehensible string of letters or symbols that is clearly a cipher. But there is a more advanced form of cryptography in which the secret message is hidden inside an apparently clear and meaningful ‘cover’ text (or digital file, nowadays).  This system is called ‘steganography’, and it depends on an agreement between sender and receiver on how to insert and extract the hidden message. For instance, ‘take the first letter of each sentence’, like in an acrostic, or any other of an unlimited number of conceivable schemes. The problem is that the ‘cover’ text has to be written ‘around’ the predetermined positions of the letters in the secret message. Such a very strict scheme can be a considerable problem for the sender. Nevertheless, Poe knew how to use such clever and difficult schemes, for instance in the following poem that he wrote for a friend, the female poet Sarah Anna Lewis (take the first letter of the first line, followed by the second letter of the second line, etc):

 

Seldom we find,” says Solomon Don Dunce

“Half an idea in the profoundest sonnet.

Through all the flimsy things we see at once

As easily as through a Naples bonnet-

Trash of all trash! – how can a lady don it?

Yet heavier far than your Petrarchan stuff-

Owl-downy nonsense that the faintest puff

Twirls into trunk-paper the while you con it.”

And, veritably, Sol is right enough.

The general truckermanites are arrant

Bubbles – ephemeral and so transparent –

But this is, now – you may depend upon it-

Stable, opaque, immortal – all by dint

Of the dear names that lie concealed within ‘t.

Steganography in Poe’s stories

Poe was fascinated by cryptography; he wrote articles about it, he challenged his readers with it, he used it in one famous story and in a few poems. So it seems quite plausible that he also used it in his stories to record his innermost feelings and his thoughts and ideas that he did not dare to make public.  And Poe certainly must have had ideas and thoughts that even went beyond the revolutionary ideas that he did dare to publish. A clear example is ‘Eureka’, whose ideas he knew for sure would bring him bitter criticism and enemies.

But the possibility of hidden messages in Poe’s work has never been investigated or even suggested. However, once one understands the possibility of hidden messages, one can also see that some of Poe’s stories and essays contain clear references to cryptography and secrets that have to be deciphered. Like in paragraphs 23 and 24 of the ‘Eureka’ text on this website, I which Poe first mentions Champollion (who deciphered the Egyptian hieroglyphs), and then boasts that he himself has stolen the golden secret of the Egyptians.

 And with the knowledge of hidden messages, it also becomes understandable and plausible why some stories contain subtle hints about hidden, ‘double’ or ‘deeper’ meanings, like the suggestion that ‘Eureka’ should be read like a poem after Poe’s death.  And, quite often, such intriguing stories are preceded by a motto or introduction that has a suggestive sentence of 24, 25 or 26 letters that might be the key-phrase that has to be used in deciphering  the secret message. This is the case with ‘The Fall of the House of Usher’; ‘The Assignation’; ‘The Thousand and Second Tale of Scheherazade’; ‘The Unparalleled Adventure of one Hans Pfaall’; ‘How to write a Blackwood article’ and ‘The Business Man’. Most probably there are more hints to be found upon a closer examination of other stories as well. In the case of ‘Eureka’ there are a few other indications for hidden messages. In the first place the often bad style and sometimes weird construction of paragraphs and sentences. And in the second place the fact that Poe left notes for many typographical corrections in a second edition, but these notes show that he did not change a sentence of even a word of the original text, although ‘Eureka’ is his second longest work (only the novel ‘Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket’ is a bit longer). Obviously Poe had to protect something, and it will be clear that, if ‘Eureka’ contains steganography, like in the above poem for Anna Sarah Lewis, such an intricate scheme will collapse immediately if changes in content are made.

It is my opinion that a serious search for such hidden treasures or ‘golden bugs’ in Poe’s works will be of the greatest importance for a better understanding of Poe, his work and his era. However, crypto-analysis is a very complex science, so  I hope that this challenge will be taken up by people who know how to search for secret codes, and how to crack them as well!

 

-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-

Poe and cryptography

René van Slooten was interviewed by the Dutch newspaper De Volkskrant, and talked about cryptographic codes in Poe’s writings. Whether it is true or not, van Slooten asks enthusiasts on Poe and/or cryptography to help searching for encrypted messages.

De Volkskrant,  23 March 2013[i]

Column by literary editor Arjan Peters.

You may call me a Poe expert, says René van Slooten (1944) by telephone. He is a retired chemical engineer, and ten years ago he translated Edgar Allan Poe’s prose-poem Eureka (1848). We mostly know Poe from his many horror stories, and as the alcoholic who would become no more than forty years old. However, in that prose-poem Poe proclaimed ideas that would be associated much later with the Big Bang Theory and Einstein. Continue Reading »

And there is even more to discover with Poe, in Van Slooten’s opinion. In June he will speak about Poe at the Positively Poe Conference at the University of Virginia. “Invited by Harry Lee Poe, a distant cousin of Poe. And what is funny: Poe himself studied at the University of Virginia. But he was also sent away, because of gambling debts and dipsomania”.

René van Slooten wants to make a summons, which I heartily support: are there any students who want to assist in breaking secret codes in Poe’s stories? “Because such codes are there, and if I am right it will be breaking news”. Edgar Allan Poe has written essays about cryptography. And there are two Valentine poems that he wrote for two female poets, in which he did hide their names in the first letter of the first line, followed by the second letter of line two, etc. And Poe also wrote about the so called key-phrase. Van Slooten: “A key phrase is a sentence of 26 letters that replace the normal alphabet. And it is remarkable that some of Poe’s famous stories have a motto that contains a sentence of 26 letters. Take, as example, ‘The Thousand and Second Tale of Scheherazade’. The motto is ‘Truth is stranger than fiction’. Very suggestive!

However, Van Slooten is no crypto-analyst and he is looking for assistance. Several universities have classes in cryptography in the departments for applied mathematics and computer sciences. Could there be a lecturer or student with a love for Poe?

Van Slooten has worked on Poe for thirty years. “His image of wanderer and writer of horror stories does not do him justice. His stories are constructed in an ingenious way and sometimes he had prophetic visions. His story ‘The Masque of the Red Death’ was inspired by the severe financial and banking crisis of 1837: Poe describes how a prosperous and hedonistic elite has corrupted the country and then destroys itself. I do not have to explain what is actual in that!”.

Of course, Van Slooten knows that Poe is called ‘hoaxie-Poe’ by his biographer Daniel Hoffman in the biography Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe. Because Poe liked to wrong-foot his readers. Which may mean that there are no secret messages in Poe’s work, and that all searches will be in vain. Van Slooten, cheerfully, “Yes, that is possible”.  Does that not scare him? “Not at all. Do you know that Poe challenged the readers of a magazine to submit coded messages? He could crack them all”. (Although Poe experts are still discussing Poe’s claim).

So I heartily hope that a clever crypto-lover will report to Van Slooten and that they will have news later this year. I respect such searches, also because I would not know where to start. And maybe we should not try to crack these codes, because certain mysteries deserve to remain intact?


[i] ‘De Volkskrant’ is the Netherlands largest quality newspaper (comparable to the ‘New York Times’ in the USA).

As you now, Poe Toaster is no longer rendering his traditional hommage to Poe in his birthday, on January 19, having made his last appearance in 2009 – the bicentennial year. But, alas!, no problem. NASA has this year paid its own hommage to Poe, by publishing, in its photojournal, pictures of the crater named after him on the planet Mercury! See images here: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA16755. The crater was officially “christened” in 2008, by the Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature of the International Astronomical Union (http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Feature/14517) . The news was shared on Facebook by The Edgar Allan Poe House & Museum.

The Poe Museum of Richmond, Virginia will sponsor the Positively Poe Conference at the University of Virginia June 24-26, 2013. The conference will focus on positive aspects of Poe and his work, including a session on Eureka. Poe’s reputation as a tortured, tragic figure, melancholic poet and the “master of the macabre” has fueled his popularity for over a century and a half, while debunking stereotypes and myths associated with that reputation has always been an essential part of Poe criticism. Going beyond the debunking of the popular caricature, we would like to discover the “positive” side of Poe’s life and work. Just as his life had its ups and downs, his writing, too, reflects a wide range of experience, not exclusively the dark and dismal.  The Eureka session will feature papers by René van Slooten on “Religion, Science and Philosophy in Eureka”, Stephen Rachman on “From ‘Al Aaraaf’ to the Universe of Stars: Poe, the Arabesque, and Cosmology,” and Murray Ellison on “Judging Edgar Allan Poe’s Eureka after his Death.”

Hal Poe

 

René van Slooten posted in the Baltimore Post Examiner an interesting opinion on Poe’s vision. The article can be found here: http://baltimorepostexaminer.com/edgar-allan-poe-philosophically-and-scientifically-ahead-of-his-time/2012/09/16, or in “Our articles” page.


Edgar Allan Poe: Philosophically and scientifically ahead of his time

By · September 16, 2012 · 5 Comments
·

poe portrait

Dear Editor,

As a Dutch translator of Poe’s work and member of the international Poe Studies Association (PSA) I read your articles about the uncertain future Poe House and Museum in Baltimore. In order to strengthen your arguments, I want to bring to your attention certain facts about Poe that are usually unknown or ignored in the USA. Please read the following points:

  • There is a rather large difference in the appreciation and admiration for Poe in the USA and in Europe. In the USA the attention goes to his horrific and grotesque stories, while in Europe there has always been much interest for Poe’s more philosophical end scientific work.
  • As a ‘philosopher of nature’ Poe was was in complete disagreement with the scientific views of his day, that were based on the celestial laws and mechanics of Newton, the so-called ‘clockwork universe’. In such a mathematically determined and ‘closed’ universe, there is no room for human freedom end responsibility, because we are no more than cogs in the universal machine that runs on time and gravity. It is therefore that pendulum and clock are deadly and fatal symbols in Poe’s work.
  • It was only towards the end of his life that Poe was able to solve the riddle of the universe, by designing a completely new and revolutionary view on the universe, based on the ideas that time cannot be absolute, and that gravity cannot be a fundamental force of nature. This new universe was described in Poe’s greatest work ‘Eureka’, and published the year before he died. At that time Poe’s ideas were in total contradiction of all scientific and religious beliefs, so ‘Eureka’ could not be understood by anyone, so as a consequence it was ridiculed and soon forgotten in the USA.
  • However, in Europe things went differently. ‘Eureka’ was regarded as a highly visionary piece by a great master, and although nobody could understand Poe’s scientific ideas about the universe, time and gravity, it was translated by Baudelaire into French and published in 1859 in a cultural Swiss magazine ‘Revue Mondial’ that was read all over Europe.
  • After the ‘Great War’ had shattered all old beliefs, the world was ripe for a revolution in science as well. During the ‘Roaring Twenties’ all scientific foundations were renewed, quantum physics was born and several European scientists were inspired by Poe’s vision on the universe, like the Russian mathematician Alexander Friedmann, the Belgian astronomer Georges Lemaitre and the American astronomer Edwin Hubble. Together they created the greatest revolution in science ever, the theory of the Big Bang and the dynamic universe, but the origin of that theory goes back to Poe, a fact that cannot be disputed but that is still unknown to most. Please read this article from the New York Times.
  • So Edgar Allan Poe is one of the greatest and most important inspirers and founders of modern science, a fact for which he has never received recognition and credits, certainly not in the USA! I hope that these arguments may help you to get more recognition for the absolute importance of the Poe House and Museum! It would be a crime against human history if this house was closed and neglected.
  • But it does not end here, because a similar idea that gravity cannot be a fundamental force of nature, is now making headlines in theoretical physics. It seems that modern physics has finally reached a point that was already discovered by Poe 160 years ago!

These are a few facts about the unknown side of Poe, and they are indisputable. If you want, I can provide you with much more material, so I hope that you will pay attention to this in your publications. Also the USA should know how great Poe really was!

Sincerely,

René van Slooten
The Netherlands

NWT Magazine

The May issue of the Dutch science monthly  “NWT Magazine” brings an article, writen by George van Hal, on the genesis of relativity and Big Bang concepts, as conceived early by Edgar Allan Poe in Eureka. Thanks to René van Slooten (quoted in the article), who adapted it and provided the English version, you can read the article here.


From the Dutch science monthly ‘NWT MAGAZINE’, May 2012.  (www.nwtonline.nl)

The universe of Edgar Allan Poe

Original article written in Dutch by George van Hal

Translated and adapted to website by René van Slooten

Decades before science did so, the American author Edgar Allan Poe wrote about the Big Bang and relativity. In recently discovered letters Albert Einstein burns down Poe’s work. But was that criticism justified, or was Poe smarter than physicists like Einstein, Friedmann, Hubble and Lemaître?

 It was a scientific paradigm shift that all at once changed our view of the universe. In 1922 the Russian mathematician and physicist Alexander Friedmann (1888-1925) took a closer look at the equations of Albert Einstein’s only seven year old  general theory of relativity, and reached a remarkable conclusion. According to Friedmann’s calculations the universe was not the static, unchangeable and eternal home that we had presumed up to that moment. No, the universe appeared dynamic, changeable and slowly increasing in size.

It was a discovery that changed everything so drastically, that even Einstein did not accept it at first, although he succumbed later. Friedmann’s discovery was a great break-through and the first of many new  insights into relativity, the Big Bang and the expanding universe.

Or so begins the official history of modern cosmology. But maybe something important is missing from it. According to some, the idea of the expanding universe does not originate at all with Alexander Friedmann. They are of the opinion that Friedmann’s great break-through was inspired by an obscure text of the American writer Edgar Allan Poe.

One of those people who is convinced of that, is the Dutch chemist René van Slooten. About 30 years ago he helped his mother to remove, and found an old, 19th century edition of Poe’s work in a box in the attic. When he leafed through it, he found something remarkable – it was full of stories that he had never read or heard of before.

One of these unknown stories was Eureka, a prose-poem about the material and spiritual universe (as Poe described it), in which the master explained his ideas about the universe. Van Slooten was intrigued immediately, because he is the son of a physicist who worked at the Philips Physics Laboratory. To his amazement he read  in this story, written in 1848, that Poe already had developed ideas and concepts that were developed in science only many years later. He found paragraphs about the Big Bang and the creation of the universe from a primordial particle, about the dynamic universe and black holes, although Poe used his own terminology. Van Slooten even saw a part in which Poe stated that the velocity of light is the absolute speed limit for electromagnetic phenomena. Which, acoording to Van Slooten, lead Poe to the description of a rudimentary theory of relativity.

Van Slooten says: “When I read all this, I thought that something very strange was going on”. And bit by bit he immersed himself deeper and deeper into Poe’s philosophy. He immediately searched for a recent edition of Eureka, but to his amazement that did not exist. “I contacted the Poe Museum (in Richmond, USA) and several American professors in literature, but no-one could help me.

It soon became clear that in American literary circles Eureka had the reputation of being nonsense. “For generations literary students were told that it was not worth reading, so no-one did”, says Van Slooten, who therefore decided to write an article about it. “It took me a lot of persuasion to get it published, because for literary editors Eureka is just a lot of abracadabra, and science editors did not believe me at first”.

But now, 30 years later, Van Slooten has devoted more than 40 publications and lectures to Poe and Eureka, and published the first Dutch translation of Poe’s masterpiece. Moreover, he found that he is not the only one who is fascinated by Poe’s philosophy. In 2001 he found a supporter in the American science writer Tom Siegfried. In his book Strange Matters Siegfried argued for the first time that Alexander Friedmann – a great fan of Poe- must have known Eureka, from which he got the inspiration for his theory about the dynamic universe.

And even before Siegfried, the Italian astronomer Alberto Cappi (University of Bologna) explored Poe’s universe. He published his findings in 1994 in the astronomical magazine Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. Cappi described how Eureka contained a theory about the Big Bang and other modern cosmological concepts.

Fools

According Van Slooten, also an earlier generation of scientists must have noticed such things. He is of the opinion that the Belgian physicist Georges Lemaître (1894-1966), the father of the Big Bang theory, also got his inspiration from Eureka. Van Slooten: “In Belgium Poe’s influence was enormous. Lemaître, who had a profound interest in literature, knew Poe’s work when he developed his theory of the Big Bang”.  And according Van Slooten, even Edwin Hubble must have known Eureka. Hubble was the astronomer who actually proved the expansion of the universe. Indications of his knowledge of Eureka are only indirect, unfortunately. “But”, says Van Slooten, “Hubble was a trustee of the Huntington Library in Pasadena, which since 1916 owns a copy of the original 1848 edition of  Eureka. For privacy reasons the library may not tell if Hubble ever read or borrowed that copy, but most probably he had his own, since he was an avid collector of astronomical books, assisted by his wife Grace, who had studied American literature”.

Still much evidence is indirect, but Van Slooten is certain: each and every one of the few scientists who created modern cosmology, knew that they were not the first to come up with these ideas.

Until recently one great name was absent from the list of scientists who read Eureka: Albert Einstein. However, a rich Poe-collector informed Van Slooten that letters about Eureka, written in 1933 by Einstein to Poe-collector Richard Gimbel were sold in 2003 for $ 10.000. Van Slooten decided to start a search for these letters, and found them last year in an American archive. Moreover, he found two more letters about Eureka, written by Einstein in 1940 to the American Poe-biographer Arthur Quinn. These letters proved that also Einstein read Eureka.

Einstein begins his letters to Quinn in a positive way: “The beginning is very funny and remarkable, because Poe clearly understands that true science can only take place through a systematic combination of experiments and logical construction”. But after that, Einstein sees a decrease in quality of the work. “When Poe starts to develop his own ideas, he loses the critical mood of the beginning , and the presentation resembles the scientific crank-letters I receive every day. I cannot help having the impression of a pathological personality being overwhelmed by an idée fixe depriving him of the possibility of critical corrections”.

Van Slooten thinks that these firm words of Einstein betray strong emotions. “I think that Einstein was one of the very few, maybe even the first, who really understood Poe’s intentions”.  Van Slooten thinks that reading Poe’s ideas about relativity, the Big Bang and the dynamic universe, was not a pleasant experience for Einstein, because he himself had needed much more time to master such ideas. “These negative feelings show in the letters” says Van Slooten. But Einstein was right is his critique that Poe’s work is not scientific in modern terms. Proofs and a sound base are lacking in the text, and Poe choose to express his ideas in cryptic literary phrases. But was that perhaps done deliberately? In several places Poe makes it clear that he wrote Eureka for the future, because he knew that his ideas were unacceptable to his contemporaries, and writing them down bluntly and directly would have made matters only worse for him: “I can afford to wait a century for readers when God himself has waited six thousand years for an observer”.  

But Van Slooten  is of the opinion that this cryptic literary style should not distract the reader, and he argues that we should take Eureka seriously. “And more and more people are doing so, fortunately. Eureka is much more valuable than just a piece by an amateur, because it is consistent and coherent. One can see that Poe has thought about it during his whole life”. And there is a huge difference between Poe’s work and the scientific crank-letters that Einstein received regularly: Poe was right in the end!

Gravity

Van Slooten thinks that even now, scientists can learn from Eureka. According to Poe, gravity is not a fundamental force of nature – an idea that is shared by modern scientists like Spinoza Award winner Erik Verlinde. But Poe chose a different approach than Verlinde. “According to Poe, gravity proceeds with infinite velocity”, Van Slooten says. If modern scientists should reach the same conclusion, the prophetic powers of a piece, written by a layman in 1848, will be even greater than anticipated.

(Note: In an interview in the Dutch newspaper ‘NRC Handelsblad’, 28 januari 2012, Verlinde said that according to him gravity acts instantaneous, thus with infinite velocity).

Therefore it is high time that scientists widen their knowledge of Poe, Van Slooten thinks. And therefore he has a simple advice for the present generation: “Start reading Eureka and open yourself for ideas from the 19th century!” #

Edgar Allan Poe’s essay ‘Eureka’: links and publications

  1. http://www.eapoe.org/papers/misc1851/18600400.htm – ‘The Raven and Eureka’, Virginia University Magazine (1860):
  2. http://www.eapoe.org/papers/misc1851/nem18691.htm (Poe’s ‘Eureka’ and recent scientific speculations’, New Eclectic Magazine, Augustus 1869)
  3. http://www.eapoe.org/papers/misc1851/nem18692.htm (‘Eureka reconsidered’, New Eclectic Magazine; November 1869)
  4. http://www.eapoe.org/papers/misc1900/19070900.htm – ( ‘Poe as an Evolutionist’; Popular Science Monthly, September 1907)
  5. Kovalyov, Y. Edgar Allan Poe and the cosmogony of the 20th century.
    Vestnik of Leningrad University. 1985. #2. Issue 1. P.21-30. (Russian).
  6. Van Slooten, E.R. Tussen oerknal en eindkrak (‘Between Big Bang and Final Crunch’), Elseviers Magazine, Amsterdam, 22 March 1986, p. 67-75. (Dutch).
  7. Van Slooten, E.R. ‘Eureka’; Edgar Allan Poe’s originele metafysica, (‘E.A. Poe’s original metaphysics’) Vti-mededelingen; Contactblad van de leden van de Vereniging tot Instandhouding van de Internationale School voor Wijsbegeerte, nr.8, juli 1986. (Dutch)
  8. Harrison, E. Kelvin on an old, celebrated hypothesis, Nature, 322, 417-418 (1986) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v322/n6078/pdf/322417a0.pdf
  9. Van Slooten, E.R. Poe’s universes, Nature, 323, 198 (1986) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v323/n6085/pdf/323198f0.pdf
  10. Gingerich, O. When dark is light enough, Nature, 330, 288 (1987) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v330/n6145/pdf/330288a0.pdf
  11. Van Slooten, E.R. The Poetic revolution. E.A. Poe’s alternative for western thought. PRANA, Spring 1987, p. 50-61.
  12. Rowan-Robinson, M. The great triumph of Edgar Allan Poe, New Scientist 24/31 December 1987, p. 72 (Review of the book ‘Dark at Night’ by E. Harrison).
  13. Van Slooten, E.R. The poetic universe, The Osaka Group for the Study of Dynamic structures, Newsletter No. 2, February 1988, p. 5-7.
  14. Van Slooten, E.R. Het visionaire heelal van Edgar Allan Poe (‘E.A. Poe’s visionary universe’), De Volkskrant, Amsterdam, 5 November 1988, p. 13. (Dutch).
  15. Cappi, R. Edgar Allan Poe’s Physical Cosmology, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 35, p. 177-192 (1994).
  16. Ferris, T. Minds and matter, New Yorker, May 15, 1995, p. 46-50. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/1995/05/15/1995_05_15_046_TNY_CARDS_000368490
  17. Van Slooten, E.R. Edgar Allan Poe, EUREKA, Filosofie Magazine, Amsterdam, July/August 1995, p. 12-13. (Dutch).
  18. Van Calmthout, M. Twee boogseconden verschil tussen Newton en Poe (‘Two seconds of arc between Newton and Poe’), De Volkskrant, Amsterdam, 7 October 1995. (Dutch).
  19. Gallatin, G. Poetic bang, New Scientist, 7 September 1996, p. 50. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg15120467.900-letters–poetic-bang.html
  20. Van Slooten, E.R. Eureka, Trouw, Amsterdam, 15 march 1997. (Dutch).
  21. Van Slooten, E.R. Parallel Poe, New Scientist, 19 April 1997, p. 55. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg15420787.200-letters–parallel-poe.html
  22. Tee, G. Boscovic’s parallel, New Scientist, 24 May 1997, p. 53. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg15420837.100-letters–boscovics-parallel.html
  23. Van Slooten, E.R. Zal GEO 600 het mysterie van Poe oplossen? (‘Will GEO 600 solve the riddle of Poe?’), Technisch Weekblad, 20 August 1997, p. 18. (Dutch).
  24. Kovalyov, Y. The Cosmogony of Edgar Allan Poe. Essays.
    Papers. Research. Vol.2. Ed. by V.Cherednichenko and Y. Luchinsky.
    Kuban University Press. Krasnodar (Russia). 1997. P. 112-147. (Russian).
  25. Van Slooten, Poe  vs. Darwin, TIME, Letters, 20 September 1999.
  26. Sharp, R. From ‘Eureka’ to ‘Mellonta Tauta’. Paper for the International Edgar Allan Poe Conference, Richmond, Virginia, October 7-10,1999.
  27. Osipova, E. Edgar Allan Poe’s ‘Eureka’: a message to the future. Paper for the conference ‘American Culture: Globalisation and Regionalism’, Moscow University Press, 2001, p. 9-12.
  28. Citati, P. Poe. Così ha aperto le porte dell’universo, (‘Poe. Thus he opened the door of the universe’) La Reppublica, 21 August 2001. (Italian).
  29. Croswell, K. Wondering in the Dark, Sky & Telescope, December 2001.
  30. The cosmic reality check; Gunther Hasinger and Roberto Gilli; Scientific American, March 2002. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-cosmic-reality-check
  31. Osipova, E. ‘The reception of ‘Eureka’ in Russia’. Paper for the Second International Edgar Allan Poe Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, October 3-6, 2002.
  32. Van Slooten, E.R. ‘Renewed forever and forever and forever. The eternally evolving Universe of Edgar Allan Poe’. Paper for the Second International Edgar Allan Poe Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, October 3-6, 2002.
  33. Eakin, E. What did Poe know about Cosmology? Nothing. But he was right. The New York Times, November 2, 2002. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/02/books/think-tank-what-did-poe-know-about-cosmology-nothing-but-he-was-right.html
  34. Pollin, Burron R. (Book review) Sir Patrick Moore. Eureka: An Essay on the Material and Spiritual Universe. The Edgar Allan Poe Review, Fall 2002, Volume III, Number 2, page 113-115.
  35. Van Slooten, E.R. Recent publications on ‘Eureka’. (Letter to the Editor). The Edgar Allan Poe Review, Spring 2003, Volume IV, Number 1, page 116.
  36. Poe, Edgar Allan; ‘Eureka’. First Dutch edition, translated, edited and explained by E.R. van Slooten. Publisher Boekenplan, Hoofddorp, Netherlands. November 2003, 178 p. ISBN 90.71794.45.8
  37. Poe, Edgar Allan. ‘Eureka’. Edited by Stuart Levine and Susan F. Levine, University of Illinois Press, Chicago, USA, April 2004. 232 p. ISBN: 0 252 02849 X
  38. Osipova, E. ‘The reception of Eureka in Russia’. The Edgar Allan Poe Review, Spring 2004, Volume V, Number 1, page 16-28.
  39. http://geschiedenis.vpro.nl/artikelen/43766467/ (Poe as father of modern cosmology; Dutch, 2010)
  40. http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath522/kmath522.htm

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Jean-François Côté
Eureka: la fin du début est le début de la fin
Eureka peut être lu comme le testament philosophique de Poe. Sous-titré Essai sur l’univers matëriel et spirituel, il était considéré par l’auteur comme son écrit ultime. Poe confiait dans ce sens à sa tante et belle-mère Maria Clemm, dans une lettre datée du7 juillet 1849, tout juste trois mois avant sa mort:  “Je n’ai pas le désir de vivre, puisque j’ai fait Eureka. Je ne pourrais accomplir rien de plus”.  Il  souhaitait que ce texte soit reçu comme un essai contenant des vérités…

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